To slow the disease, if you smoke, stop immediately.
Certain vitamin supplements help somewhat.
The original Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), published in 2001, examined the effects of vitamins and minerals on AMD. After more than 5 years, participants receiving both 500 mg Vitamin C, 400 IU Vitamin E, 15 mg beta carotene and 80 mg zinc showed a statistically significant decrease in progression to advanced AMD.
A follow-on study, AREDS2, published earlier this year, investigated altering the AREDS formula by adding lutein and zeaxanthin, the primary carotenoids in the eye, and omega-3 fatty acids. Other changes included reducing the amount of zinc to 25 mg, and removing beta carotene, since studies suggest it may increase cancer risk in smokers.
Results from AREDS2 showed that reduced amounts of zinc were equally effective, and adding lutein and zeaxanthin benefited two subgroups: 1) those taking AREDS1 formula without beta carotene and 2) those with low levels of lutein and zeaxanthin in their diet. Adding omega-3 fatty acids did not further reduce the progression to advanced AMD.